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Shpanberg—to go with another boat and two dubel boats, 22 also built in Kamchatka, and study the Kurile Islands and the coast of Japan. This second expedition had political as well as scientific goals in mind. It was no accident that precisely during preparations for this expedition that the first more or less detailed plans for a vast Russian colonial expansion in the Pacific basin emerged.
Its author was over-secretary of the Senate I. Expansion on the American coast, in the opinion of the prominent statesman, would contribute to reinforcing the treasury and the development of Russian trade in the Pacific.
Therefore, one cannot agree with the assertions that such plans by the Tsarist government did not exist. We note that they were worked out long before similar proposals by G.
Shelikhov, which researchers at times relate. During the course of this expedition Russian mariners on the packet boat Sv. Pavel, under the command of A. This location was for a long time the southern boundary of the official Russian claim in the New World.
After the discovery of the shores of Southeast Alaska, Chirikov went north to the Kenai Peninsula and Kodiak Island, and on return to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski discovered several of the Aleutian Islands. The head of the expedition, V. Bering in the packet boat Sv. Elias one day later than Chirikov.
After that he immediately set off for Kamchatka, discovering along the way the Shumagin Islands and several islands in the Aleutian chain before reaching the Commander Islands, where the packet boat suffered shipwreck and the commander himself died from scurvy in December In September , the Second Kamchatka Expedition was officially concluded.
The Tsarist government was not satisfied with its results because of the huge expenses in carrying out the geographical investigations without sufficient economic and political returns. In just organizing and equipping the Second Kamchatka Expedition the treasury had paid out since the gigantic sum of , rubles.
Members of the expedition did not succeed in discovering mineral deposits or raw materials, or introducing Russian citizenship to the local population. Moreover, a third of the members of the expedition including its leader did not return from the trip to the shores of America, while one of the packet boats perished and much government equipment was lost.
A Shift in Direction 16 Not surprisingly, with the termination of the Second Kamchatka Expedition the central government lost interest in organizing new expeditions to the islands in the Pacific Ocean, handing over the initiative to private individuals—primarily to Siberian merchants, who had to provide their own capital and expense for the interests of the empire on its eastern borders.
Beginning in , ships equipped by Siberian merchants with crews of Russian promyshlenniki set off for the Commander and Aleutian Islands, which had been discovered by members of the Bering-Chirikov expedition. The promyshlenniki collected valuable furs and subdued the local Aleuts, 27 compelling them to pay yasak to the Tsarist treasury and to furnish furs for the merchant companies.
He also delivered news about the find on Chikhmil Island of a foreign two-masted ship stranded on the shore. Empress Catherine II, in a decree of May 4, , commanded the Admiralty College to immediately send several naval officers for a more detailed study of the region, 29 and in March an official decree appeared on the annexation to Russia of six Aleutian Islands.
However, the highly optimistic plans of the Okhotsk commandant were not brought to life. Instead a new government expedition led by captains P. Krenitsyn and M. Levashov, which lasted from to , cost the treasury enormous resources and great human sacrifices, and did not bring the desired results, 32 which again forced the government to withdraw from participation in any expansionistic projects in the North Pacific for almost 15 years.
It was urgently ordered that the priority of Russian discoveries in this region be confirmed: By feverish work had begun in the Admiralty College and the Academy of Sciences on composing geographic maps, which would reflect the results of the expeditions of Russian mariners. Billings and G. Her main goal was the detailed investigation and formal strengthening of the Russian crown in Chukotka. A second goal was the study of the islands lying close to the Alaska Peninsula as far as Cape St.
Elias, which had been discovered by V. Bering in Finally, if the occasion arose he was encouraged to describe the Kurile Islands as far as Japan, China, and Korea. The proposal to send two frigates and a military transport to the Pacific from the Baltic with the goal of training experienced mariners, expanding commerce, and founding fortifications in America was first expressed as early as by the inspector general of the fleet Count N.
Soimonov, appeared in December The president of the Department of Commerce, A. To secure these demands two warships were to be sent from the Baltic to the Pacific, and the coats of arms of the Russian Empire would be displayed on the coast of Alaska and adjacent islands.
Mulovskii was assigned to command the future Pacific squadron, having received detailed instructions from the Admiralty College. Here, on the shores of Japan, two vessels were supposed to begin a detailed inventory of the Kurile Islands and officially secure them for Russia, and then examine the mouth of the Amur River and Sakhalin Island. For formal seizure of the American coast he was to raise Russian flags on high places, to erect state coats of arms, and to distribute to the natives specially cast medals.
Dreams Crushed by the Weight of Wars 21 Thus, a broad plan of colonial expansion was outlined, including a clear military-political aspect, which in fact reanimated the project of I. Kirilov of The French Revolution and subsequent upheavals in European politics completely moved the question of Russians colonialism in the New World to the background, at least for St.
Shelikhov, in instructions of May 4, to the director of his company on Kodiak Island, K. Shelikhov personally and for the RAC as a whole.
In order to secure these territories for Russia, Yakobi ordered 30 copper Russian coats of arms prepared and the same number of iron plates with the inscription Zemlya rossiiskogo vladeniya Land of Russian Possession , part of which was handed over to Shelikhov. This claiming of territory also was to be done in the Kurile Islands.
Shelikhov and his companion I. Golikov about the development of trade in the Pacific and the intention of founding new colonies on the Northwest Coast of America and the Kuriles received a favorable response from the Tsarist government. Trade is one thing, seizure is another. Bolkhovitinov has convincingly indicated, the rejection by the Empress of colonial expansion at this time was also dictated by other things, such as wars with the Turks and Swedes. During the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth centuries the primary direction of Russian expansion was south the northern Black Sea area—the Caucasus , which was directly reflected in the utterances of the Tsaritsa during this period.
Also the all-powerful favorite Duke G. Finally, she did not wish additional complications with other powers in the Pacific—the problems of European politics fully occupied her. From this moment the initiative in elaborating expansionist plans in the North Pacific finally moved to representatives of merchant capital, who were vitally interested in occupying new resource areas because of the exhaustion of fur wealth in the former territories.
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