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Is the risk of HIV different for different people? How is HIV passed from one person to another? You can get or transmit HIV only through specific activities. Most commonly, people get or transmit HIV through sexual behaviors and needle or syringe use. Only certain body fluids—blood, semen cum , pre-seminal fluid pre-cum , rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk—from a person who has HIV can transmit HIV. These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream from a needle or syringe for transmission to occur.
Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, vagina, penis, and mouth. For the HIV-negative partner, receptive anal sex bottoming is the highest-risk sexual behavior, but you can also get HIV from insertive anal sex topping. Sharing needles or syringes, rinse water, or other equipment works used to prepare drugs for injection with someone who has HIV. HIV can live in a used needle up to 42 days depending on temperature and other factors.
Less commonly, HIV may be spread From mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. Although the risk can be high if a mother is living with HIV and not taking medicine, recommendations to test all pregnant women for HIV and start HIV treatment immediately have lowered the number of babies who are born with HIV.
By being stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other sharp object. This is a risk mainly for health care workers. In extremely rare cases, HIV has been transmitted by Oral sex—putting the mouth on the penis fellatio , vagina cunnilingus , or anus rimming. This was more common in the early years of HIV, but now the risk is extremely small because of rigorous testing of the US blood supply and donated organs and tissues.
Eating food that has been pre-chewed by a person with HIV. The only known cases are among infants. Being bitten by a person with HIV. Each of the very small number of documented cases has involved severe trauma with extensive tissue damage and the presence of blood. There is no risk of transmission if the skin is not broken. Contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and HIV-infected blood or blood-contaminated body fluids. Deep, open-mouth kissing if both partners have sores or bleeding gums and blood from the HIV-positive partner gets into the bloodstream of the HIV-negative partner.
HIV is not spread through saliva. How well does HIV survive outside the body? HIV does not survive long outside the human body such as on surfaces , and it cannot reproduce outside a human host. It is not spread by Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Saliva, tears, or sweat that is not mixed with the blood of an HIV-positive person. Can I get HIV from anal sex? In fact, anal sex is the riskiest type of sex for getting or transmitting HIV. HIV can be found in certain body fluids—blood, semen cum , pre-seminal fluid pre-cum , or rectal fluids—of a person who has HIV.
Can I get HIV from vaginal sex? Most women who get HIV get it from vaginal sex. This is because vaginal fluid and blood can carry HIV. Can I get HIV from oral sex? Oral sex involves putting the mouth on the penis fellatio , vagina cunnilingus , or anus anilingus.
Factors that may increase the risk of transmitting HIV through oral sex are ejaculation in the mouth with oral ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases STDs , which may or may not be visible.
You can get other STDs from oral sex. And, if you get feces in your mouth during anilingus, you can get hepatitis A and B, parasites like Giardia, and bacteria like Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. Is there a connection between HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases?
Some of the most common STDs include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus HPV , genital herpes, and hepatitis. The only way to know for sure if you have an STD is to get tested. If the STD causes irritation of the skin for example, from syphilis, herpes, or human papillomavirus , breaks or sores may make it easier for HIV to enter the body during sexual contact.
Even STDs that cause no breaks or open sores for example, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis can increase your risk by causing inflammation that increases the number of cells that can serve as targets for HIV.
Treatment is a powerful tool for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. But it works only as long as the HIV-positive partner gets and keeps an undetectable viral load. Here are some things to consider when deciding whether treatment as prevention is right for you and your partner: Not everyone taking HIV medicine has an undetectable viral load.
Missing some doses can increase the viral load and the risk of transmitting HIV. People who have trouble taking medicine as prescribed can talk with their health care provider about the challenges they are facing and develop a plan to ensure they take their medicine every day.
They should also consider using other prevention strategies like condoms. But to stay healthy and protect their partners, they need to visit their provider regularly and get a viral load test as recommended. Some people who take HIV medicine daily can get an undetectable viral load very quickly, but it can take some people up to six months. The only way to know if you are undetectable is by getting your viral load tested. These blips usually go back down by the next viral load test.
But people who experience blips may benefit from using other prevention strategies condoms until their viral load is undetectable again. Both partners should learn about all their options for preventing HIV , as well as other STDs, so they can make the decisions that are best for them. Important Note: Consider using condoms if either partner is concerned about getting or transmitting other STDs.
Can I get HIV from injecting drugs? Your risk for getting HIV is very high if you use needles or works such as cookers, cotton, or water after someone with HIV has used them. People who inject drugs, hormones, steroids, or silicone can get HIV by sharing needles or syringes and other injection equipment.
Stopping injection and other drug use can lower your chances of getting HIV a lot. You may need help to stop or cut down using drugs, but many resources are available. If you keep injecting drugs, you can lower your risk for getting HIV by using only new, sterile needles and works each time you inject. Never share needles or works.
Can I get HIV from using other kinds of drugs? You may be more likely to have unplanned and unprotected sex, have a harder time using a condom the right way every time you have sex, have more sexual partners, or use other drugs, including injection drugs or meth. Those behaviors can increase your risk of exposure to HIV. Being drunk or high affects your ability to make safe choices. Therapy, medicines, and other methods are available to help you stop or cut down on drinking or using drugs.
Talk with a counselor, doctor, or other health care provider about options that might be right for you. This is called HIV superinfection. The new strain of HIV can replace the original strain or remain along with the original strain.
The effects of superinfection differ from person to person. Research suggests that a hard-to-treat superinfection is rare. Are health care workers at risk of getting HIV on the job? The risk of health care workers being exposed to HIV on the job occupational exposure is very low, especially if they use protective practices and personal protective equipment to prevent HIV and other blood-borne infections.
For health care workers on the job, the main risk of HIV transmission is from being stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other sharp object. However, even this risk is small.
Can I get HIV from receiving medical care? Although HIV transmission is possible in health care settings, it is extremely rare. Careful practice of infection control, including universal precautions using protective practices and personal protective equipment to prevent HIV and other blood-borne infections , protects patients as well as health care providers from possible HIV transmission in medical and dental offices and hospitals.
It is important to know that you cannot get HIV from donating blood. Blood collection procedures are highly regulated and safe. Through saliva, tears, or sweat that is not mixed with the blood of an HIV-positive person. By mosquitoes, ticks or other blood-sucking insects.
Through the air. Only certain body fluids—blood, semen cum , pre-seminal fluid pre-cum , rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk—from a person with HIV can transmit HIV. See How is HIV passed from one person to another? Can I get HIV from a tattoo or a body piercing? However, it is possible to get HIV from a reused or not properly sterilized tattoo or piercing needle or other equipment, or from contaminated ink.
The risk of getting HIV this way is very low, but the risk increases when the person doing the procedure is unlicensed, because of the potential for unsanitary practices such as sharing needles or ink. If you get a tattoo or a body piercing, be sure that the person doing the procedure is properly licensed and that they use only new or sterilized needles, ink, and other supplies.
Can I get HIV from mosquitoes? HIV is not transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks, or any other insects. Can I get HIV from food? Even if the food contained small amounts of HIV-infected blood or semen, exposure to the air, heat from cooking, and stomach acid would destroy the virus.
Then estimate the cost. Add in costs such as spending money for souvenirs; extra fees; taxes from airlines and hotels; and gas for a rental car. Once you have a ballpark figure, add another 5 percent to 10 percent in case you go over, which you very well might. If you come home with extra cash, all the better. Keep your goal on the top of your mind If you want the strength to say no to that fantastic new dress or your daily cappuccino, you need to have a bigger goal to focus on. Every time you have the urge to whip out your credit card, picture yourself on the beach, on a cruise or camping in Costa Rica.
If it helps, put a picture of your destination in the slot next to your credit card in your wallet. Find extra cash early Cutting small things from your budget over six months or a year's time is a lot less painful than spending the month before your vacation on house arrest to save up at the last minute. Not only that, but the earlier you invest your savings, the more interest you'll garner, and that's free money.
To do it, Nusbaum says to spend a good chunk of time tracking your spending, so you know where every dollar you withdraw from the ATM is going. Once you have a few weeks' worth of data, look it over and ask yourself what was a necessary expense a reasonable grocery bill, for instance and what wasn't eating lunch out each day instead of packing those groceries.
If you receive an extra chunk of money throughout the year — a tax return, a bonus, a gift from a family member — and you're all set where your debt and retirement savings are concerned, go ahead and stick that in your vacation fund as well.
Make it automaticOnce you've cut the fat, come up with the amount that you can put away each month for your vacation fund. Set up your bank accounts so that amount is automatically transferred monthly from your checking account into your vacation fund account. Not only does this allow you to put the whole savings process out of mind, but it also takes the cash out of your hands before you have a chance to squander it.
Treat these fund transfers as you would any other bill that must be paid monthly. Earn interestDon't let that vacation fund fester under your mattress or in a plain-vanilla savings account. Instead, find a good money market account that will earn you at least 4 percent in interest. A good place to look is bankrate.
You'll likely find the best rates at online banks, which pay upwards of 5 percent in exchange for the inconvenience of not being able to make your transactions in person. Having oral sex. The risk is extremely small these days because of rigorous testing of the U. Being bitten by a person with HIV. Each of the very small number of documented cases has involved severe trauma with extensive tissue damage and the presence of blood. There is no risk of transmission if the skin is not broken. Contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and HIV-infected blood or blood-contaminated body fluids.
Deep, open-mouth kissing if both partners have sores or bleeding gums and blood from the HIV-positive partner gets into the bloodstream of the HIV-negative partner. HIV is not spread through saliva. Eating food that has been pre-chewed by a person with HIV. The only known cases are among infants. But it works only as long as the HIV-positive partner gets and keeps an undetectable viral load.
Not everyone taking HIV medicine has an undetectable viral load. To stay undetectable, people with HIV must take HIV medicine every day as prescribed and visit their healthcare provider regularly to get a viral load test. Learn more.