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The original culinary use described eggs. The earliest printreference to the word "rare" relating to meat cookery is circa This early reference notes this stage is unwholesome [Markam]. Like their 17th century predecessors, early 20th cooking texts warn against rare meat. Rare vs. Underdone opposite of Done? Meat thermometers s took the guesswork out of judging doneness. Black and blue aka"Pittsburgh style" steak surfaces in print in the s. Originally a variant of rear adj.

This gave rise to the variant rare, which retained the early modern pronunciation in standard English compare thecurrent pronunciation of e. Compare also rare v. Originally only of eggs: Also in extended use. In quot. As complement with verbs.

Paynell tr. Joannes de Mediolano Regimen Sanitatis Salerni sig. F j b, Poched egges are better than egges rosted hard or rere. Borde Compend. Regyment Helth xii. Harington tr.

A7, Egges newly laid, are nutritiue to eat, And rosted Reere are easie to digest. Sandys tr. Ovid Metamorphosis viii. Boorde Compend. Regyment Helth xiii. Baker tr. Gesner Newe Jewell of Health ii. Bright Treat. Melancholie xxxix. Heylyn Surv. Estate France A dish of Egges, rear-roasted by the flame. Turner Art of Surg. Berthelson Eng. RAREOf meat, esp. Formerly often regarded as an Americanism see quot.

Markham Eng. Hus-wife in Countrey Contentments ii. Colman Spleen ii. Without them, Sir, instead of beef or mutton, you might as well eat mahogany?. Eat your meat as rare as possible, Sir. Lamb Christ's Hosp. Donovan Domest. Berkeley Eng. Sportsman 26 The wood-cock and snipe? Sun 6 Aug. Ferber Dawn O'Hara ii.

Of meat: Also in medium done, medium rare cf. Ade 40 Mod. Newill Good Food iv. A rule to be rememberedis that all white meats must be thorougly cooked. Red meats may be served a little underdone.

This does not mean that the blood must runfrom them as they are carved, but that they must be pink, juicy and tender. Philadelphia] p. What may seem rare to one person, is medium rare to another, while it is not at all uncommon to have meat that is actually raw offered as rare. The usualhousehold method of attaining these different degrees by allowing for the time of cooking, a definite number of minutes for each pound of meat contained in theroast, while reliable to some extent, is not sufficiently accurate for careful investigations.

Under such conditions, considerable variations may occur in the degree ofcooking, and it has already been shown ' that the percentages of the original constituents of the raw meat which areremoved by cooking depend on this factor.

Online text[]"-And when you sit down to a big, thick, juicy, medium rare steak, flanked by some delicately browned potatoes The longer a piece of meat is cooked the more the interior colorchanges from pink or red to gray,and the greater the cooking losses.

Some meats like veal and pork are cooked well done, while beefmay be cooked rare. There is no definate stage between a rare and meidum-done piece of meat or between a medium well-done one and awell-done one. The meat passes from one stage to another gradually, so that there is no definite end point. Heat penetrates slowlyintp the minterior of a large piece of meat, and the center of the meat, unless very much over-cooked, never attains as high atemperature as the meat near the surface.

Rare meat. Grindly and Sprague have suggested, for convenience, that meat with aninterior temperatue at its center of 60 degrees C. Such meats are juicier than meats cooked well done. Nearly allthe interior may be a bright red color or only a small portion around the center of the meat may be red. The extent oruniformity of the red color depends upon the cooking temprature Rare meat also has more of the original meat flavor than well-donemeat, for not so much of the fluids and extractives giving flavor to the meat have been lost.

Medium well-done meat. Grindleyand Sprague have suggested that meat that has reached an inner temprature of 60 to 70 degrees C. There the color also varies with the temperature of cooking, the degree to which the meat has been ripened, and in someinstances with the age of the animal and the kind of meat.

Rare and medium well-done meats are probably more often associated with thecolor of the cooked meat. Since the color of the cooked meat varies with different conditions, the division into rare, medium well-donevaries on the basis of inner temperature of the meat is only an arbitrary one and not always satisfactory.

Most people wouldbe agreed that medium well-done meat should ot be a deep red or pink, but should show some pink color. Well-done meat. Meat that has auniform gray color throughout the enteire interior of the meat is usually called well done. With veal, this stage of cookery issometimes reached before or by the time the inner temperature has reached 71 degrees C. This may also be true of beef thathas ripened sufficiently But to some persons the term well done is associated with the degree of cookery, that is, theseparation of the muscle fibers due to formation of gelatin from the connective tissue.

It may also refer to the dryness of the meat and theloss of juices. The meat may be cooked until it reaches a temperature far above 71 degrees C. New York] p. Thermometer readings: Beef, rare, degrees; medium, degrees; well done, degrees. Rombauer [Bobbs Merrill: Indianapolis IN] p. Medium and well done times for lamb chops. Well done times only for veal cutlets, veal chops, mutton chops, ham, pork chops and bacon.

For medium-done it is degrees and for well-done it is to These figures are readings of thermometers placedat the center of the cut and read while the neat is cooking. The temperature there is lower than in the oven. That depends Preferences for the "doneness" of meat vary according to period, place, and people. Food historians generally agree the discovery of cooking was accidental.

Meats roasted on open fires released pleasing aromas, enhanced product flavor, and made the food easier to chew. The trifecta of all food discoveries. Ancient western peoples so valued cooked meats that consuming anything raw was considered "barbarian.

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Donovan Domest. Berkeley Eng. Sportsman 26 The wood-cock and snipe? Sun 6 Aug. Ferber Dawn O'Hara ii. Of meat: Also in medium done, medium rare cf. Ade 40 Mod. Newill Good Food iv. A rule to be rememberedis that all white meats must be thorougly cooked. Red meats may be served a little underdone.

This does not mean that the blood must runfrom them as they are carved, but that they must be pink, juicy and tender. Philadelphia] p. What may seem rare to one person, is medium rare to another, while it is not at all uncommon to have meat that is actually raw offered as rare. The usualhousehold method of attaining these different degrees by allowing for the time of cooking, a definite number of minutes for each pound of meat contained in theroast, while reliable to some extent, is not sufficiently accurate for careful investigations.

Under such conditions, considerable variations may occur in the degree ofcooking, and it has already been shown ' that the percentages of the original constituents of the raw meat which areremoved by cooking depend on this factor.

Online text[]"-And when you sit down to a big, thick, juicy, medium rare steak, flanked by some delicately browned potatoes The longer a piece of meat is cooked the more the interior colorchanges from pink or red to gray,and the greater the cooking losses. Some meats like veal and pork are cooked well done, while beefmay be cooked rare. There is no definate stage between a rare and meidum-done piece of meat or between a medium well-done one and awell-done one.

The meat passes from one stage to another gradually, so that there is no definite end point. Heat penetrates slowlyintp the minterior of a large piece of meat, and the center of the meat, unless very much over-cooked, never attains as high atemperature as the meat near the surface.

Rare meat. Grindly and Sprague have suggested, for convenience, that meat with aninterior temperatue at its center of 60 degrees C. Such meats are juicier than meats cooked well done. Nearly allthe interior may be a bright red color or only a small portion around the center of the meat may be red. The extent oruniformity of the red color depends upon the cooking temprature Rare meat also has more of the original meat flavor than well-donemeat, for not so much of the fluids and extractives giving flavor to the meat have been lost.

Medium well-done meat. Grindleyand Sprague have suggested that meat that has reached an inner temprature of 60 to 70 degrees C. There the color also varies with the temperature of cooking, the degree to which the meat has been ripened, and in someinstances with the age of the animal and the kind of meat.

Rare and medium well-done meats are probably more often associated with thecolor of the cooked meat. Since the color of the cooked meat varies with different conditions, the division into rare, medium well-donevaries on the basis of inner temperature of the meat is only an arbitrary one and not always satisfactory.

Most people wouldbe agreed that medium well-done meat should ot be a deep red or pink, but should show some pink color. Well-done meat. Meat that has auniform gray color throughout the enteire interior of the meat is usually called well done. With veal, this stage of cookery issometimes reached before or by the time the inner temperature has reached 71 degrees C. This may also be true of beef thathas ripened sufficiently But to some persons the term well done is associated with the degree of cookery, that is, theseparation of the muscle fibers due to formation of gelatin from the connective tissue.

It may also refer to the dryness of the meat and theloss of juices. The meat may be cooked until it reaches a temperature far above 71 degrees C.

New York] p. Thermometer readings: Beef, rare, degrees; medium, degrees; well done, degrees. Rombauer [Bobbs Merrill: Indianapolis IN] p. Medium and well done times for lamb chops. Well done times only for veal cutlets, veal chops, mutton chops, ham, pork chops and bacon.

For medium-done it is degrees and for well-done it is to These figures are readings of thermometers placedat the center of the cut and read while the neat is cooking. The temperature there is lower than in the oven. That depends Preferences for the "doneness" of meat vary according to period, place, and people. Food historians generally agree the discovery of cooking was accidental. Meats roasted on open fires released pleasing aromas, enhanced product flavor, and made the food easier to chew.

The trifecta of all food discoveries. Ancient western peoples so valued cooked meats that consuming anything raw was considered "barbarian. With the exception of hogs, domesticated animals were slaughtered and consumed after they outlived their usefulness. Which meant? Meat was generally tough. Slow cooking in some kind of broth rendered these tough sinews edible. In pre-industrial times fresh meat was a priviledge enjoyed by the wealthiest classes.

Before the days of reliable refrigeration, most meats were preserved. In the realm of smoked ham, salt beef, and dried fish, the concept of a "doneness" scale from raw to overcooked did not exist. Meats were cooked with one general goal: Ancient Greeks and Roman physicians "prescribed" cooking methods by humoral theory.

They recognized the effect of cooking on the outcome of meat. Certain meats were "prescribed" for boiling or roasting, according to their inherent humoral nature. Renaissance European chefs resdiscovered and promoted this dictum.

Modern food scientists can now explain what the ancient physicians knew. Cooked meat tastes good. Prime cuts subjected to minimal cooking rare, medium rare generally offer the best aroma, flavor, and texture.

Americans love affair with meat, especially beef, refects ancient heritage, old world cooking methods and modernscientific knowledge. In the last quarter of the 20th century heat concerns regarding undercooked beef resulted fromsalmonell a poisoning to mad cow.

USA government stepped in to regulate "safe" cooking temperatures. Some diners whoformerly consumed their beef on the raw side began ordering "well done" to be safe. In sum: Raw meat is tasty rather than flavorful. It providessalts, savory amino acids, and a slighlt acidity to the tongue, but offers littel in the way of aroma. Cooking intensifiesthe taste of meat and creates its aroma. Simple physical damage to the muscle fibers causes them to release more of theirfluids and therefore more stimulating substances for the tongue.

The fluid release is at its maximum when the meat is onlylightly cooked, or done 'rare. The texture of rawmeat is a kindk of slick, resistant mushiness. The meat is chewy yet soft, so that chewing compresses it instead ofcutting through it. And its moisture manifests itself if slipperiness; chewing doesn't manage to liberate much juice. Heatchanges meat texture drastically.

As it cooks, meat develops a firmness and resiliance that make it easier to chew. Itbegins to leak fluid, and becomes juicy.

With longer cooking, the juices dry up, and resiliance give way to a drystiffness. And when the cooking goes on for hgours, the fiber bundles fray away from each other, and even tough meatbegins to fall apart Generally, we like meat to e tender and juicy rather than tough and dry.

The ideal method forcooking meat would therefore minimize moisture loss and compacting of the meat fiers, while maximizing the conversion oftough connective-tissue colllagen to fluid gelatin. Unfortunately, these two aims conflict with each other So there isno ideal cooking method for all meats. The method must be tailored to the meat's toughness.

Tender cuts are best heatedrapidly and just to the point of their juices are in full flow. Grilling, frying, and roasting are the usual fast methods. Tough cuts are best heated for a prolonged period at temperatures approaching the boil, usually by stewing, braising, orslow-roasting.

Fat coats and lubricates meat fibers during cooking, and stimulates the flow of saliva andcreates the sensation of juiciness no matter hwo dry the meat fibers themselves have become. Recipes for hours-longbraising or stewing were developed for mature animals with substantially cross-linked collagen that took a long time todissolve into gelatin. However, today's industrially produced meats come from relatively young animals with more solublecollagen and far less fat; they cook quickly, and subber more from overcooking.

Grilled hops and steaks may be just rightat the center but dry elsewhere; long-braised pot roasts and stews are often dry throughout. It was virtually everyone's aspiration to have meat on his table Naturally there wereserious problems in keeping the meat fresh, since mechanical refrigeration was unavailable. It was salted, smoked, andeven preserved in honey Meat was oven-roasted, spit-roasted, used in patties, stuffings, and stews, or It is important to remember that because meat was relatively tough and frequently salted to prevent spoilage, itwas often necessary to rinse it in milk and boil it once or twice before using it in a specific recipe.

Chicago] p. Medieval physicists--orphysicians--told their contemporaries that cooking added either warmth and moisture or warmth and dryness to theirfoodstuff that was cooked: Roasting, the application of direct heat at close proximity, was appropriate for acold, moist meat such as pork because the open fire would warm and dry. A grill was convenient for flat meats, a spit forlarger cuts. The distance of both grill and spit from the flame could be regulated fairly well Boiling, on the otherhand, offered a relatively constant heat, and boiling better suited beef because it cold dry nature needed to be bothwarmed and moistened.

If the ignorant cook were to subject beef to a roasting, so further drying its already dry nature,this could be quite dangerous to the unfortunate person who was to eat it later, and could even put him or her at risk ofan attack of melancholia or a bilous upset. That medieval French cooks too this warning seriously and rarely roasted theirbeef is evident in the large stocks of beef bouillon that our recipes imply was always on hand for ready use in otherpreparations.

Ann Arbor] p. The leading lights like eef wee cooked, though some of them nevertheless devour itbloody after the fashion on the Cyclops. They commend the wether almost raw, but pork cooked until it almost melts [thatis, until it falls apart]. And indeed, among winged creatures they can eat with pleasure wood pigeons still running withblood and scarcely touched by fire. When today we ask for our steak well done, medium or rare, we are repeating achoice that the Renaissance writers revived from Hippocratic writings.

In Pierre Duchatel noted the physicalreactions to be expected from meat prepared in each of the thre ways ' Well-roasted meats are more sluggish. Sarah Peterson [Cornell University Press: Ithaca NY] p. For four people buy a nice slice ofbeef filet, at least two inches thick and weighing two pounds. To cook it, use a broiler with an overhead flame, andpreheat it to avoid having the meat stick Put the meat on a broiler rack, brown it quickly under a hot flame, thencontinue cooking it for eight to ten minutes at a lower temperature.

Turn and do the same for the other side. Shortlybefore it is ready season it with salt and pepper, to taste. The meat is just right when droplets of blood appear on thesurface of the meat. It may be cut thicker.

Sprinkle both sides with sald and spread withbutter or good fat. For medium done allow a few minutes extra. Yearsago, a great deal more was made of the matter, as there were those who felt that rare meat was fit only for cannibals. Others thought that eating red meat, meaning rare, was synonymous with being a genuinely red-blooded American Today suchthinking is far less widespread. The fact is that there are national kitchens that perfer meat rare and those that preferit exceedingly well done I have observed, both in this country and in Greece, that the Grecian method of preparing a legof lamb also involves a good many hours of cooking and that the Greeks prefer the meat quite well done To my mind,there is a simple explanation for these cooking preferences.

The lamb of France is quite tender and can be eaten withpleasure if it is not cooked to the well-cone state. The lamb of Haiti and Greece requires that it be tenderized throughone long-cooking technique or another. The lamb of America is more like that of France and comes off exceedingly well whencooked to the rare or medium-rare stage.

SM77 Recent wisdom promoting well done meats is understandable given outbreaks of food poisoning: At least that it the theory of a New York Statehealth official, who said there had been no reported outbreaks in the rest of the country where people prefer to buycooked cold roast beef medium or well done C10 "The Agriculture Department recommends cooking beef to an internal temperature of at least degrees, the temperature atwhich most potentially dangerous microoganisms are destroyed.

It calls meat at this degree of doneness 'medium rare,' meatat degrees 'medium' and meat at degrees 'well done. As a test, Victor H. Thedegree of doneness was based mostly on timing. As soon as the steaks came out of the broiler, they were tested with aninstant thermometor. The rare steak registered to degrees; the medium rare, to , and the medium steak, ,still pink in the center but going to gray-brown at the edges. The medium-well steak was to degrees.

There was adifference of 15 degrees between the Government and the steakhouse Maybe people think it's safer. When and where did this method of cooking steak occur? James Beard's notes on steak "doneness" [, ] do not reference "black and blue. The difference, of course,is that Proudhomme's "blackened" resulted from fiery flavors in addition to cooking methods.

While print evidence confirmsthe phrase was used in mids USA, the actual practice became popular twenty years later. Some folks call thisPittsburgh-stylesteak.

What is blue? The term "bleu" blue takes two meanings regarding protein cookery: This method consists of plunging the fish, absolutelyfresh, if not actually alive, into a boiling court-bouillon It's a kind of smoked-braising, slow-cooking method. No other country in the world has the sameway of doing barbecue.

Its latest incarnationmay have begunwith blackend and grilled food, though its reputation was sealed the moment the word crust became theonly acceptable modifier for the word bread.

There is a certain thrill to working through the difficult to find something tender and pliant. It makes eatingamong other thingsworth the effort. Contrast, of coruse, is also part of a crust's charm. Depending on the heft of the crust, the encounter begins with a crackle.

The subsequent taste is anintimate melding of teeth and tongue, brittle and soft. A tough epidermis both insulates and protects the life it surrounds. Crusted things tolerate hight heat--a boon for those seeking juiceat first slice. A black-and-blue streak forms a primitive crust. Subjected to a blast of heat, the meat caramelizes into a crunchy surface, which, in turn, encases thedrippings.

Self-containment invites respect, or at least adds to the mystery Sources confirm The Colony opened in but fail tocite the year "Pittsburgh Style" cooked steak was introduced in that establishment. The menu consisted of lobster tail, sirloin steakand filet mignon. Son Paul, who runs the steakhouse now, remembers that people saidit was too expensive and wouldn't last The Colony still has the Lazy Susans with aselection of toppings for salads and a pastry tray with tempting desserts.

You canstill have your steak ''Pittsburgh style'' -- black on the outside and red inside -- whichPaul thinks started here. But if you want the signature Colony steak sauce, sosuccessful that it's now sold in supermarkets, I guess you have to ask The biggestseller on the menu today is filet mignon, but a strip steak or sirloin has more marblingand more flavor, Paul believes.

I agree. His Honor has ordered the filet, and I'm havingthe sirloin, so we can compare. Both are an inch and a half thick, grilled to perfection. But I do think the sirloin has slightly more flavor than the filet. It doesn't even occur to usto ask for the famous steak sauce; the beef needs no enhancement. H8 "I asked for my sirloin Pittsburgh-style - blackened on the outside, medium rare inside,and it was perfect.

The meat was tender, marbled but not fatty, and full of flavor. It is attributed to Henri IV. The promise remains constant. Prosperity means having the pleasure of good food in sufficient quantity.

This phrase was revived in the USA presidential campaign. Although it is attributed to Herbert Hoover, this candidate never made this specific promise. It was a slogan created and promoted by his party. Why the chicken? In Henri IV's time, any kind of a meat was considered luxury. Before modern poultry methods raising rendered fowl inexpensive, chickens were prized for their eggs.

Tough old hens were consumed when they ceased production. Only the wealthiest people could afford the luxury of consuming tender young chickens. A Sunday Chicken Dinner was very much a prized family event.

Herbert Hoover never said or quoted it. What he did say,on October 22, , was 'The slogan of progress is changing from the 'Full Dinner Pail' to the full garage. Hoover's speeches or writings, of which a very careful file has been keptover the years, the expression 'a chicken in every pot.

Hoover also never promised or even expressed his hope of two cars in every garage. FDR loved the misquotation and never let it go In John F. Kennedy misquoted thephony quotation in Bristol, Tennessee The Hoover Presidential Archives and Museum confirms this quote is erroneously attributed to candidate Hoover]?

Symbol of prosperity, turn-of-the century equivalent of a cornucopia, or horn of plenty; slogan of the William McKinley campaign The dinnerpail had long been a symbol in the growing labor movement. Thomas Nast used it in an Harper's Weekly cartoon, and Theodore Roosevelt wrote a friend in In Herbert Hoover tried to update the phrase, holding the symbolfor the 'party of prosperity': Since the Depression, most Republicans have stayed away from thesymbols of prosperity in campaigning, though they have used the word prosperity itself; Democrats have hammered away at the 'Chicken in every pot' which Hoover neversaid , denying Republicans the full dinner pail as a symbol.

Since dinner pails are blue-collar rather than white-collar, and the packaging of food has changed, the symbolmay be expected to reappear as nutritious, portable snack. It only goes to show that the Republican party is making its appeal to the stomach instead of the mindsand hearts of the voter They do not seek to preserve liberty or to promote the interests of mankind; but instead they promise to fill hisstomach with a full dinner pail. Bride, WashingtonPost, August 13, p. Prosperity, or the old 'full dinner pail' cry of McKinley, is to be the Republican bid for victory.

Slogan," Washington Post, July 7, p. Republican prosperity has reduced hours and increased earning capacity, silenced discontent, put theproverbial 'chicken in every pot.

It has raised living standards and loweredliving costs Vote for Hoover. I wonder what ideathe man who invented a thing like this had in his mind? Al Smith was the Democratic candidate for president in Men and women made long frothy speeches minimizing the vices andmagnifying the virtues of favorite son. There were the same old promises of a job for every man; a chicken in every pot; and anautomobile in every back yard.

Slogans and Promises," W. Meaken, New York Times, October 27, p. TheRepublican assurance of 'a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage' is repeated often in sarcastic Democratic speeches. Thispromise is usually attributed to President Hoover himself. It was not made by him, however, in any of his campaign speeches. But iswas displayed prominently in a paid advertisement which the Republican campaign committee inserted in a number of newspapers. In large lettersat the top of this advertisement were the words 'A Chicken for Every Pot.

And a car in every backyard, to boot. XX12 []"Plentiful foods for March include peanuts, canned pears, rice and broiler-fryers. The fact that plentiful poultry is reasonably priced is aboon to budget-conscious homemakers. But you know it hasn't been too many years ago when chicken was considered quite a luxury, to be served for'company' or Sunday family dinners.

Chicken was used as a symbol of prosperity in Herbert Hoover's presidential campaign. A'chicken in every pot and a car in every garage' was the slogan. J30 Airline chickenAirline chicken can be several things, depending upon who you talk to. It can be a fancy cut, aspecialpresentation, or a negative appelation directed at inflight foodservice.

The airline connection? In some instances, his rules differ from the modern standard. Here are the rules of Brahmagupta: In saying zero divided by zero is zero, Brahmagupta differs from the modern position. Mathematicians normally do not assign a value to this, whereas computers and calculators sometimes assign NaN, which means "not a number. Once again, these assignments are not numbers, and are associated more with computer science than pure mathematics, where in most contexts no assignment is done.

The earliest certain use of zero as a decimal positional digit dates to the 5th century mention in the text Lokavibhaga. The glyph for the zero digit was written in the shape of a dot, and consequently called bindu "dot". The dot had been used in Greece during earlier ciphered numeral periods. The Hindu-Arabic numeral system base 10 reached Europe in the 11th century, via the Iberian Peninsula through Spanish Muslims, the Moors, together with knowledge of astronomy and instruments like the astrolabe, first imported by Gerbert of Aurillac.

For this reason, the numerals came to be known in Europe as "Arabic numerals". The Italian mathematician Fibonacci or Leonardo of Pisa was instrumental in bringing the system into European mathematics in , stating: After my father's appointment by his homeland as state official in the customs house of Bugia for the Pisan merchants who thronged to it, he took charge; and in view of its future usefulness and convenience, had me in my boyhood come to him and there wanted me to devote myself to and be instructed in the study of calculation for some days.

There, following my introduction, as a consequence of marvelous instruction in the art, to the nine digits of the Hindus, the knowledge of the art very much appealed to me before all others, and for it I realized that all its aspects were studied in Egypt, Syria, Greece, Sicily, and Provence, with their varying methods; and at these places thereafter, while on business.

I pursued my study in depth and learned the give-and-take of disputation. But all this even, and the algorism, as well as the art of Pythagoras, I considered as almost a mistake in respect to the method of the Hindus Modus Indorum. Therefore, embracing more stringently that method of the Hindus, and taking stricter pains in its study, while adding certain things from my own understanding and inserting also certain things from the niceties of Euclid's geometric art.

I have striven to compose this book in its entirety as understandably as I could, dividing it into fifteen chapters. Almost everything which I have introduced I have displayed with exact proof, in order that those further seeking this knowledge, with its pre-eminent method, might be instructed, and further, in order that the Latin people might not be discovered to be without it, as they have been up to now. If I have perchance omitted anything more or less proper or necessary, I beg indulgence, since there is no one who is blameless and utterly provident in all things.

The nine Indian figures are: With these nine figures, and with the sign From the 13th century, manuals on calculation adding, multiplying, extracting roots, etc. The most popular was written by Johannes de Sacrobosco, about and was one of the earliest scientific books to be printed in Until the late 15th century, Hindu-Arabic numerals seem to have predominated among mathematicians, while merchants preferred to use the Roman numerals.

In the 16th century, they became commonly used in Europe. The natural number following 0 is 1 and no natural number precedes 0.

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