Ambiguity in general and syntactic ambiguity in particular might create a Classification of news headlines in terms of their structure, function and reel meaning is that Estrada is detained in hospital till the date of trial. Ambiguity can be caused by the ambiguous lexicon in which one word has in forms of newspaper headlines, jokes, riddles and anecdotes.
Grammar Inference: Denotation Words, it has been observed, are sneaky—they change meaning when you put them somewhere else. Consider the term "ate" in the following examples: The boy ate the apple in the pie. The acid ate the metal. His guilt ate into him. The stapler ate staples The word ate means different things in each of these sentences.
Whether we think of these various meanings of "ate" as different meanings of the same word or as the meanings of four different words, we still have to recognize the appropriate meaning in any given context. As we read, our brain calls up possible meanings. With barely a pause, we infer an appropriate meaning in each of the remarks. Dictionary citations with more than one meaning are more the rule than the exception, as in the following example. Either way, readers must recognize the appropriate meaning when they come upon the sequence of letters t-a-b-l-e in a text.
Anyone familiar with the language will quickly recognize an appropriate meaning whether a word refers to an object a noun Delia sat at thetable. We have little trouble understanding the three meanings of grade in the following sentence: We read ideas, not words. We can "fix" a car, a race, a meal, a dye, a cat, or a ship's course. In each instance we do something different.
Consider another example: Blackberries are red when they are green. You can almost feel wheels grinding in your head as you do an initial double take before recognizing that, in this context, green does not denote a color, but "unripe.
Used gun. Used for protection. Never been used. Does a reference to a ghetto refer to urban hood or European religious enclave? In each instance, the surrounding discussion provides clues for inferring the appropriate denotation. Ambiguity The fact that common words tend to have multiple meanings can lead to ambiguity, a situation in which two or more equally legitimate readings exist. In many instances, any potential ambiguity is easily resolved.
The kids played in the snow. Here snow is obviously a reference to frozen water, not heroin well, in most contexts! When more than one meaning of a word makes sense, we have lexical i. The school had many poor students on scholarships.
Are the students on scholarship "not rich" or "not good students"? The sentence is ambiguous. Readers draw on prior knowledge and past experience to infer the appropriate meaning. They at once "read" both the language and their knowledge of the world.
Some of the most striking examples of ambiguity of word meaning can be seen in headlines. They infer meaning from contextual clues, whether on the page or, in this case, from our prior knowledge and the news of the day. Examples such as this make clear that we do not simply read words so much as interpret them.
In many, if not most, instances, one meanings is obviously the intended meaning within the given context, the other meaning a somewhat funny alternative meaning. The painting was found by the tree. By can mean "near," or "through the agency of. This example, however, involves more than simple lexical ambiguity. We also parse the sentence differently to see the different meanings, as the following suggests. It was next to the tree. When the ambiguity lies in how we analyze a sentence, rather than in deciding the meaning of a word, we have syntactic ambiguity.
We saw a clear case of syntactic ambiguity in Chapter One: He did not marry her because he loved her. The meanings depends on how you analyze the sentence. The following headlines provide examples of ambiguity. Iraqi Head Seeks Arms 3. Prostitutes Appeal to Pope 4. Kids Make Nutritious Snacks 5. New Vaccine May Contain Rabies 6. Include your Children when Baking Cookies 8. Related Topics.
Berlin cut his hand off. It's a lexical ambiguity. Conclusion," "The Blacklist," May 12, "Outside of a dog, a book is a man's best friend; inside it's too hard to read. She is looking for a match. The fisherman went to the bank. Sadly, I never knew my real ladder. For example, "They passed the port at midnight" is lexically ambiguous. However, it would normally be clear in a given context which of the two homonyms , 'port' 'harbor' or 'port' 'kind of fortified wine' , is being used—and also which sense of the polysemous verb 'pass' is intended.
An Introduction" Characteristics "The following example, taken from Johnson-Laird , illustrates two important characteristics of lexical ambiguity: The plane banked just before landing, but then the pilot lost control. The strip on the field runs for only the barest of yards and the plane just twisted out of the turn before shooting into the ground.
First, that this passage is not particularly difficult to understand in spite of the fact that all of its content words are ambiguous suggests that ambiguity is unlikely to invoke special resource-demanding processing mechanisms but rather is handled as a byproduct of normal comprehension.
Ask whether there are particular words that could be interpreted in multiple ways. Often, one word could be a noun or a verb, and this is part of the ambiguity. Group the words together as units related to each interpretation. Here is the first example: Police chase driver in hospital. There are two clear interpretations to this: The police chased a driver into a hospital, or chased them while they were inside a hospital.
A driver who has been involved in a police chase has ended up in hospital. The second interpretation is most likely to be the intended meaning. What words could be interpreted in multiple ways? The key here is the word chase. Chase can be a noun or a verb. Here is how the words might be grouped in the intended interpretation.
Students should feel free to just group the words as below, or to add the labels for the kinds of phrases that each word or group of words represents. Police chase driver.