Jun 18, · Carbon Found in Dinosaur Bone With the recent announcement of soft tissue in off-the-shelf dinosaur bones (6/09/15, 6/10/15), complete with enriched carbon, the obvious question is: does any of it contain carbon? Because of the isotope’s short half-life (5, years), no C14 should be detectable after about , years. Carbon 14 is a isotope of Carbon (usual molecular weight 12) that’s is unstable, and decays over time into Nitrogen It’s used for radiometric dating of organic material, less than about 50, years old. Because it has a relatively short half.
Here, logically, the chronological age of the rock layers assume the lower layers are older than the ones above. The study of strata is called stratigraphy1. Carbon dating is based on the decay of an atom 14C , a radioactive isotope of the carbon atom with a known half-life of approximately 5, years—meaning half of the14C is gone in the specimen in about 5, years.
The measurement of organic samples can be used to estimate the age of samples somewhat accurately for thousands of years in laboratories. Scientists and archeologists do not debate the presence of 14C in dinosaur bones, dinosaur collagen, or fossils. They just refuse to use or accept the use of this dating method with these organic samples. Primary Argument Carbon dating, with a half-life of approximately 5, years, cannot be present in anything more than tens of thousands of years old, yet is found abundantly in virtually all dinosaur bones and fossils tested2.
The presence of 14C in these samples stand in abrupt opposition to evolutionary concepts of eons of years with dinosaur bones and fossils being millions of years old. Other Arguments All dating methods outside the laboratory or controlled environments are flawed. It must be repeated that all dating methods are flawed whether 14C, radio-argon, ice cores, or even tree rings. When a dating method is carefully observed in a laboratory or field study the results can be measured with good accuracy.
However, one must know the beginning quantity, environmental factors, to get these accurate results. It is easy to understand that when one applies this to a sample found in the ground this procedure cannot be completed. We simply cannot measure these samples taken from sometime in the past under unknown environmental circumstances and assume the same principles as used in the laboratory setting. The use of strata stratigraphy to date fossils and thereby using the fossils to date strata is circular reasoning and therefore is a logical fallacy.
This indicates the commitment to the age of the earth is held above any scientific measurement methodology that stands in opposition to it. With a 5,year half-life 14C only can be measured accurately for assumed thousands of years.
In fact, there should be virtually no measurable 14C after about 40, — 50, years3. However, textbooks to this day state that coal3 formed some million years ago and even diamonds3 formed perhaps even billions of years ago but both test young ages with 14C present.
It is also losing 14C through decay each year. Therefore, the question arose: Scientists wanted to figure out how long it would take the atmosphere to reach a point where the construction rate and the destruction rate of 14C was the same.
They determined that it would take about 30, years to reach this equilibrium state. It has been discovered that the earth has still not reached equilibrium. In the end, the math leaves the earth needing about 20, more years to reach equilibrium and therefore being less than 10, years old.
Clearly 14C has not reached equilibrium and measurements must consider 14C was not a constant in the past. Assumed ratio of 14C is too large to remain accurate assumed 1 to 1-trillion decayed in testing. For these incredibly enormous rations of 1 to 1-trillion to be detected, the instruments scientists use must be extremely sensitive and accurate. This huge ratio is a critical assumption and variable in the dating math.
If the measurement is incorrect by even a few atoms, then the dates maybe off by tens of thousands of years. Simply put: Magnetic Field of the Earth is decaying so 14C is not a constant throughout history. The earth has a magnetic field which protects life from harmful radiation from the sun and outer space. This magnetic field is decaying getting weaker with each passing year. The stronger the field around the earth, the fewer number of cosmic rays are able to reach the atmosphere.
If the production rate of 14C in the atmosphere was less in the past, dates given using the 14C method would incorrectly assume that more 14C had decayed out of a specimen than that which had actually occurred. This would result in giving older dates than the true age. Therefore, the earth cannot be more than 10, years old4 and ages taken in excess of this date using 14C may be inaccurate due to this factor. Conclusion The presence of 14C in dinosaur bones and fossils are clear scientific evidence that these samples are thousands of years old and not millions of years old as calculated by stratigraphy and circular reasoning of geologic aging.
The reason archeologists do not use 14C for dinosaur bones and fossils is simply because they do not get the ages they want. The assume the ages to be millions of years old so they do not date these samples with 14C but they will use it for things they assume to be younger such as Roman artifacts or of ancient civilizations just not dinosaur bones or fossils.
General Facts How 14C gets into the living world: There it latches onto oxygen becoming carbon dioxide. During photosynthesis plants breathe in carbon dioxide and take the atom in as part of the cellular structure. Animals eat plants and make thus intake these atoms into the cells of their bodies as well. In short, 14C is produced in the atmosphere by the sun, plants breathe it in, and the animals eat the plants or eat the animals that ate the plants3.
By Mike Riddle, Sept 20, , https:
Acta Histochemica is a peer-reviewed journal of structural biochemistry of cells and tissue that welcomes advanced microscopical imaging; it has been publishing since On the day the paper was published, Dr. Kwok called a secret meeting of the committee overseeing the microscopy lab.
Armitage had served on the committee for three years, but he was not invited. The committee decided to terminate Armitage. On February 19, , William Krohmer told Armitage that there was a "witch hunt" being mounted against him, and advised him to resign.
When he refused to resign, Krohmer told him he would be terminated. Armitage was fired on February 27, He was told that his job had only been a "temporary appointment".
There is a sidenote to this story. Hugh Miller, head of the Paleochronology group, obtained a bone sample from the triceratops horn Mark Armitage discovered.
As you can see, the bone was dated by them to 33, years before present. The data for their four dinosaurs is below. More soft tissue A remarkable find was published in the journal Nature in April The "bone bed is characterized by the presence of completely disarticulated skeletal elements at various stages of embryonic development".
This made it possible to detect the preservation of organic residues, probably direct products of the decay of complex proteins, within both the fast-growing embryonic bone tissue and the margins of the vascular spaces. Our results clearly indicate the presence of both apatite and amide peaks within woven embryonic bone tissue, which should not be susceptible to microbial contamination or other post-mortem artefacts.
Huang, Eric M. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains. Nature, Vol. Commentary Radiocarbon RC or Carbon C dating of linen, cotton, bones, fossils, wood, sea shells, seeds, coal, diamond anything with carbon is one of the most common and well understood of the various scientific dating methods. Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon that is formed naturally in the atmosphere. All plants and animals have a regular intake of carbon while they are alive.
When an animal or plant dies, it no longer takes in carbon of any form. C has a half-life of years. The maximum theoretical detection limit is about , years, but radiocarbon dating is only reliable up to 55, years with the best equipment. Older dates are considered to be tentative. If, as generally believed, dinosaurs have been extinct for 65 million years, there should not be one atom of Carbon left in their bones.
The accuracy of carbon dates depends on whether the ratio of Carbon to Carbon was the same in the past as it is today. There are two types of C dating technologies. The original one, counting Beta decay particles, is a multistep process and requires sample sizes of several grams. Beta counting is prone to possible errors in each of the many phases.
AMS uses a much smaller sample size, and actually counts the Carbon atoms as they are separated from the sample. The equipment accelerates streams of charged atomic particles to high velocities in order to sort and analyze them.
Carbon dating of bone is one of the most difficult tasks in carbon dating, and requires the most care of any carbonaceous material. This is mainly due to the nature of bone, which is a very porous material. Certain parts of bone look like a sponge under the microscope.
Many dinosaur bones are hard as rock because the original material has been replaced with a silicon material such as quartz. These are "mineralized" or "fossilized".
We have found un-mineralized dinosaur bones. We then scrape the outer surface off to get rid of surface contamination, and date the inner remaining material. One can date just the purified bioapatite, the total organics, or the collagen, or a combination of these, as we did in several cases. This is a remarkable find because collagen, being a soft tissue present in most animals, is supposed to decay in a few thousand years. Collagen is the main protein found in connective tissue of animals.
It can make up from 1 to 6 percent of muscle mass. Triceratops and Hadrosaur femur bones in excellent condition were discovered in Glendive Montana, and our group received permission to saw them in half and collect samples for Carbon testing. Both bones were tested by a licensed lab for presence of collagen.
Both bones did in fact contain some collagen. The best process Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was used to date them. Total organic carbon and dinosaur bioapatite was extracted and pretreated to remove potential contaminants, and concordant radiocarbon dates were obtained. They were similar to radiocarbon dates for ice-age megafauna such as Siberian mammoths, saber tooth tigers of the Los Angeles LaBrea Tarpits, sloth dung, and giant bison.
We usually prefer AMS dating because of its inherent superior accuracy, but use the conventional method when large samples are available in order to completely rule out contamination. This is recommended by a carbon-dating laboratory specialist. Robert Bennett, physicist and co-author, agree that "the AOGS-AGU assembly encourages presentation of reliable data even though the topic may be controversial.
This is a very wise policy for the advacement of science and the education of people everywhere. Thus, we encourage our colleagues to do their own carbon dating of dinosaur bones from museums and university fossil repositories around the world, as well as testing for C in scrapings from dinosaur bones as they are excavated. We are anxious to see their results presented, just as we have done. Also, we call on the news media and citizens everywhere to urge paleontologists, curators, university faculty, and government scientific agencies to encourage and support further testing for C content in dinosaur remains.
Scientists need to know the actual chronology of the Earth and the age of the fossils. Waldemar Julsrud, a German hardware merchant in Acambaro, Mexico, was riding his horse on the lower slope of El Toro Mountain on a sunny morning in July Suddenly he spotted some partially exposed hewn stones and a ceramic object half buried in the dirt.
He dismounted and dug out of the ground the hewn stones as well as a few ceramic pieces. Julsrud, who was archaeologically astute, immediately realized that these ceramic pieces were unlike anything that he had seen. The objects he held in his hand were distinctively different than any other known Indian culture. When a few ceramic fragments were found there, Julsrud hired diggers to excavate.
This discovery brought world wide attention from archaeologists who at first mistakenly defined them as Tarascan, but later they were correctly identified as a whole New Indian culture - the Chupicuaro.
Julsrud at age sixty-nine was on the brink of making a discovery that may prove to be the greatest archaeological discovery ever made. He hired a Mexican farmer, Odilon Tinajero, to dig in the area where the ceramic figurines were found and bring him any other similar objects. Soon Tinajero had a wheelbarrow full of ceramic pottery that had been excavated on El Toro Mountain. Charles Hapgood notes that "Julsrud was a shrewd businessman and he now made a deal with Tinajero that is very important for our story.
He told Tinajero that he would pay him one peso worth about 12 cents for each complete piece he brought in. Among the thousands of artifacts excavated were items that turned Julsrud's mansion into "the museum that scared scientists. The objects were made of clay and stone, varying in size from a few inches long to statues three feet high, and dinosaur objects four to five feet long. In the collection, that now numbered over 20, objects, not one could be found to be a duplicate of another.
Each of the clay pieces had been individually made, without molds, skillfully sculptured, and carefully decorated. Several hundred of the figurines were scientifically identified as representing many species of dinosaurs, including duck billed Trachodon, Gorgosaurus, horned Monoclonius, Ornitholestes, Titanosaurus, Triceratops, Stegosaurus Paleococincus, Diplodocus, Podokosaurus, Struthiomimos, Plesiosaur, Maiasaura, Rhamphorynchus, Iguanodon, Brachiosaurus, Pteranodon, Dimetrodon, Ichtyornis, Tyrannosaurus Rex, Rhynococephalia and other unknown or as yet unidentified dinosaur species.
These remarkable dinosaur figurines threaten orthodox concepts and time scales in many fields of study. Ivan T. Sanderson was amazed in to find that there was an accurate representation of the American dinosaur Brachiosaurus, which was almost totally unknown to the general public at that time. Sanderson wrote about the figurine in the Julsrud collection. It is about a foot tall. The point is it is an absolutely perfect representation of Brachiosaurus, known only from East Africa and North America.
There are a number of outlines of the skeletons in the standard literature but only one fleshed out reconstruction that I have ever seen. This is exactly like it. In , Arthur Young submitted two of the figurines to Dr. The Masca lab had obtained thermoluminescent dates of up to 2, B. In a letter dated September 13, , addressed to Mr. Young, Dr Rainey said: Now after we have had years of experimentation both here and at the lab at Oxford, we have no doubt about the dependability of the thermoluminescent method.
I should also point out, that we were so concerned about the extraordinarily ancient dates of these figures, that Mark Han in our lab made an average of 18 runs on each one of the four samples.
Hence, there is a very substantial bit of research in these particular pieces All in all the lab stands on these dates for the Julsrud material, whatever that means in terms of archeological dating in Mexico, or in terms of 'fakes verse's authentic' pieces.
They asserted that the ceramics gave off regenerated light signals and could be no more than 30 years old. A thermoluminescent technician admitted that no other ceramics existed, in his experience, that produced regenerated light signals, and no other thermoluminescent dating of ceramics had ever been done by utilization of a regenerated light signal.
In short, the excuse was a hocus pocus, laboratory trick to avoid the obvious conclusion that dinosaurs and man lived together.
John Tierney determined to expose the University of Pennsylvania's shenanigans by testing with standard procedures. Tierney had two fragments of Julsrud-type ceramics excavated at El Toro Mountain in Acambaro, and in , in Julsrud's presence, Tierney submitted these pieces to Dr.
Victor J. Bortulot determined the pieces' upper limit age to be 2, years old, thus, invalidating the Masca report which claimed the objects were made thirty to one hundred years ago. John Tierney took a half dozen samples of Julsrud ceramics of different clay composition to a team of experts at Ohio State University. They consisted of Dr. Earle R. Caley among the world's most respected archaeological chemists , and Dr.
Ernest G. Ehlers mineralogist in the geology department at Ohio State University. The team reported that they could not believe the artifacts were made in modern times, nor could they believe they were made by some amateur who tried to perpetuate a fraud. Upon my notifying them that they had authenticated Julsrud artifacts, they lapsed into a profound and apparently permanent silence. In , B. Video released the program "Jurassic Art", which contained an Acambaro segment that was originally supposed to have been part of NBC's television special, "The Mysterious Origins of Man.
Toward the end of the program, it is revealed that he sent two samples of Julsrud-type ceramics a human figure and a dinosaur figure to an independent Carbon laboratory. Startling results came back. Steede tap danced around the implications, embarrassingly embracing the human figurine as credible, while waltzing past the dinosaur figurine, claiming the laboratory test must not have given a true reading.
In reality, the dinosaur figurine created too much tension for orthodox science and Steede had to find an out. The solution was simple. He discarded the dinosaur date. The Japanese company Nissi sponsored a television crew to go to Acambaro and produce a program for Japanese T.
The program entitled "Did the Ancients See Dinosaurs? There is a stunning moment in the program as the Japanese narrator is looking over an animal figurine, and he holds it up next to his Japanese book on dinosaurs.
It is also losing 14C through decay each year. Therefore, the question arose: Scientists wanted to figure out how long it would take the atmosphere to reach a point where the construction rate and the destruction rate of 14C was the same. They determined that it would take about 30, years to reach this equilibrium state. It has been discovered that the earth has still not reached equilibrium. In the end, the math leaves the earth needing about 20, more years to reach equilibrium and therefore being less than 10, years old.
Clearly 14C has not reached equilibrium and measurements must consider 14C was not a constant in the past. Assumed ratio of 14C is too large to remain accurate assumed 1 to 1-trillion decayed in testing. For these incredibly enormous rations of 1 to 1-trillion to be detected, the instruments scientists use must be extremely sensitive and accurate. This huge ratio is a critical assumption and variable in the dating math. If the measurement is incorrect by even a few atoms, then the dates maybe off by tens of thousands of years.
Simply put: Magnetic Field of the Earth is decaying so 14C is not a constant throughout history. The earth has a magnetic field which protects life from harmful radiation from the sun and outer space. This magnetic field is decaying getting weaker with each passing year. The stronger the field around the earth, the fewer number of cosmic rays are able to reach the atmosphere. If the production rate of 14C in the atmosphere was less in the past, dates given using the 14C method would incorrectly assume that more 14C had decayed out of a specimen than that which had actually occurred.
This would result in giving older dates than the true age. Therefore, the earth cannot be more than 10, years old4 and ages taken in excess of this date using 14C may be inaccurate due to this factor. Conclusion The presence of 14C in dinosaur bones and fossils are clear scientific evidence that these samples are thousands of years old and not millions of years old as calculated by stratigraphy and circular reasoning of geologic aging.
The reason archeologists do not use 14C for dinosaur bones and fossils is simply because they do not get the ages they want. The assume the ages to be millions of years old so they do not date these samples with 14C but they will use it for things they assume to be younger such as Roman artifacts or of ancient civilizations just not dinosaur bones or fossils. General Facts How 14C gets into the living world: